Ba and Shu were names of two ancient ethnic groups. Till now Ba refers to Chongqing, and Shu Sichuan. Originating from the late Neolithic Age, Bashu culture gradually develops after the Painted Grey Ware Culture of Iron Age, Jade Culture Age and Bronze Age, and has a greatly important contribution to Chinese culture, such as Sanxingdui Ruins and Jinsha Culture, Dujiangyan Irrigation Project, Daoism, Buddhism, Bashu crafts, technology, religion etc..
Ba Shu culture in fact includes two concepts. One is the more than a millennium old culture of ancient Shu and Ba peoples of the period starting from Shang-Zhou to the Warring States period. The other is the Ba Shu culture based on its geographical characteristics, which started from the Han dynasty and continues to today, spanning a period of over 2,000 years.